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Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 plays a vital role in helping your body produce red blood cells. Low vitamin B12 levels cause a reduction in red blood cell formation and prevent them from developing properly.


When you’re anaemic, your body doesn’t have enough red blood cells to transport oxygen to your vital organs. This can cause symptoms like fatigue and weakness.

Adequate vitamin B12 levels are crucial to a healthy pregnancy. Studies show that a fetus’s brain and nervous system require sufficient B12 levels from the mother to develop properly.

Vitamin B12 deficiency in the beginning stages of pregnancy may increase the risk of birth defects, such as neural tube defects.


One study found that women with vitamin B12 levels lower than 250 mg were three times more likely to give birth to a child with birth defects, compared to those with adequate levels.


For women with a vitamin B12 deficiency and levels below 150 mg, the risk was five times higher, compared to women with levels above 400 mg.


Vitamin B12 is known to lower Homocysteine. Higher levels of Homocysteine can cause macular degeneration (central vision) A study shown of 5000 women aged 40+ That increased their dosage of Vitamin B12 has reduced risk.


Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with 2x the risk of depression. A high dose of Vitamin B12 linked to a better treatment outcome & an increased probability of recovery after Major depressive disorder (MDD)


An increased intake of Vitamin B12 will likely improve your energy levels.


Low Vitamin B12 levels can cause various dermatologic symptoms that include; hyperpigmentation, hair changes, loss of skin colour in patches & nail discolouration.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2965901/Reversible hyperpigmentation of skin and nails with white hair due to vitamin B12 deficiency - PubMed

Who at most risk of Vitamin B12 deficiency?

- Older Adults

- Those on a plant-based / vegan diet. 

- People with gastrointestinal disorders (Crohn's / celiac)

Vitamin D3

Vitamin D and Menopause–a narrative review: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263127402_Vitamin_D_and_Menopause-a_narrative_review

Does vitamin D status influence lumbar disc degeneration and low back pain in postmenopausal women? A retrospective single-center study: https://journals.lww.com/menopausejournal/Abstract/publishahead/Does_vitamin_D_status_in fluence_lumbar_disc.97235.aspx

Evaluating Vitamin D Status in Pre- and Postmenopausal Type 2 Diabetics and Its Association with Glucose Homeostasis: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2018/9369282/

Vitamin D and the skin: Focus on a complex relationship: A review: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4642156/

The Impact of Active Vitamin D Administration on the Clinical Outcomes of Acne Vulgaris: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31868550

Comparison of Vitamin D Levels in Patients with and without Acne: A Case-Control Study Combined with a Randomized Controlled Trial: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4999291/

Vitamin D Fact Sheet for Health Professionals: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminD-HealthProfessional/

The Control of Calcium and Phosphorus Metabolism by the Vitamin D Endocrine System: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7015957

Sports Health Benefits of Vitamin D: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3497950/

Vitamin D Deficiency: A Worldwide Problem With Health Consequences: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18400738

Vitamin D’s Role in Health — Deterministic or Indeterminate?: https://www.todaysdietitian.com/newarchives/070114p48.shtml

High Vitamin D Levels May Downregulate Inflammation in Patients with Behçet’s Disease: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/iji/2017/8608716/

Vitamin D in Atopic Dermatitis, Asthma and Allergic Diseases: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2914320/

The Controversial Role of Vitamin D as an Antioxidant: Results From Randomised Controlled Trials: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30326975

The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Vitamin D in Tumorigenesis: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6164284/

The Use of Calcium and Vitamin D in the Management of Osteoporosis: The use of calcium and vitamin D in the management of osteoporosis - PubMed


What are the health benefits of biotin?: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com /articles /318724.php

Dietary Biotin Deficiency Affects Reproductive Function and Prenatal Development in Hamsters: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8263603/

Treatment of Brittle Fingernails and Onychoschizia With Biotin: Scanning Electron Microscopy: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2273113

Biotin and biotinidase deficiency: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2726758/

Targeting Demyelination and Virtual Hypoxia With High-Dose Biotin as a Treatment for Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26327679

High Doses of Biotin in Chronic Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25787192

Biotin Supplementation Reduces Plasma Triacylglycerol and VLDL in Type 2 Diabetic Patients and in Nondiabetic Subjects With Hypertriglyceridemia: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16677798

Effects of Biotin on Lipids and Other Constituents of Plasma of Healthy Men and Women: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7011260

Therapeutic Evaluation of the Effect of Biotin on Hyperglycemia in Patients with Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269972103_Therapeutic_Evaluation_of_the_Effect_o f_Biotin_on_Hyperglycemia_in_Patients_with_Non-Insulin_Dependent_Diabetes_Mellitus

Chromium Picolinate and Biotin Combination Reduces Athe: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17496732

High-dose biotin in progressive multiple sclerosis : a prospective study of 86 patients in routine clinical practice:
https://onlinelibrary.ectrims-congress.eu/ectrims /2018/ectrims-2018/229554/laura.couloume.hi gh-dose.biotin.in.progressive.multiple.sclerosis.a.html

– Dermatologic Signs of Biotin Deficiency Leading to the Diagnosis of Multiple Carboxylase Deficiency: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15165201

Folic Acid

Multivitamin Supplementation During Pregnancy: Emphasis on Folic Acid and l-Methylfolate: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3250974/

Folic Acid Food Fortification—Its History, Effect, Concerns, and Future Directions: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc /articles /PMC3257747/

Folic Acid Supplementation for the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28097362

Role of homocysteine in the development of cardiovascular disease: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4326479/

Maternal periconceptional folic acid intake and risk of autism spectrum disorders and developmental delay in the CHARGE (Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment) case-control study: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/96/1/80/4571464

Enhancement of Recovery From Psychiatric Illness by Methylfolate: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1974941

The metabolic processes of folic acid and Vitamin B12 deficiency: http://www.jhrr.org/article.asp?issn=2394-2010;year=2014;volume=1;issue=1;spage=5;epage=9; aulast=Mahmood

Age-related Hearing Loss, Vitamin B12, and Folate in the Elderly: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21109085

Folate Fact Sheet for Health Professionals: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Folate-HealthProfessional/

Folate, Folic Acid and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate Are Not the Same Thing: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24494987

Release: Daily folic acid supplement may reduce risk of gestational diabetes: https://www.nichd.nih.gov/newsroom/news/042919-folate

Folate and DNA Methylation: A Review of Molecular Mechanisms and the Evidence for Folate's Role: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3262611/

Folate deficiency causes uracil misincorporation into human DNA and chromosome breakage: Implications for cancer and neuronal damage: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC20362/